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Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease after Sleeve Gastrectomy: Effectiveness of Medical, Endoscopic, and Surgical Therapies.

Introduction: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become the most frequently performed bariatric operation in the United States. One of the main disadvantages of this procedure is the risk of developing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) after the operation. We aimed to analyze different approaches for the treatment of GERD after SG. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify all possible treatment options for post-SG GERD. All the studies were assessed for full eligibility by manual assessment of their aims, methodology, results, and conclusions. Records were individually reviewed by the authors comparing outcomes and complications between procedures. Results: Although some studies have shown improvement or even resolution of GERD symptoms after SG, most patients develop or worsen symptoms. Lifestyle modifications along with medical therapy should be started on patients with GERD after SG. For those who are refractory to medication, endoscopic and surgical therapies can be offered. Conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is consistently effective in treatment of GERD and is the ideal therapy in patients with associated insufficient weight loss. Endoscopic and alternative surgical procedures are also available and have shown acceptable short-term outcomes. Conclusions: Several treatment options exist for the treatment of GERD after SG. Although conversion to RYGB remains the most effective therapy, other emerging endoscopic and surgical procedures could avoid the potential morbidity of this procedure and should be further evaluated. An evidence-based algorithm for the management of GERD after SG is proposed to guide decision making.

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