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Thermal Ablation of Thyroid Nodules, From the AJR "How We Do It" Special Series.

Ablation has been shown to be an effective option for treatment of well-selected patients with thyroid nodules, particularly benign nodules, and thermal ablation is being increasingly used for this purpose. The general approach to thermal ablation of the thyroid will be familiar to interventional radiologists who perform ablation in other tissues; however, thermal ablation of the thyroid has additional unique considerations. In this review, we provide evidence-based and real-world guidance on the performance of thermal ablation for the treatment of patients with thyroid nodules, drawing on our collective experience and clinical practice. We describe patient selection, ablation modalities, equipment, general procedural approach, additional technical considerations, and postprocedural follow-up. We discuss various clinical scenarios; give tips on performing specific portions of the procedure and highlight a range of relevant anatomic, biochemical, and clinical factors, as a guide for interventional radiologists in establishing a successful thyroid ablation practice.

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