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Differences in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes Among 5 Racial/Ethnic Groups.

OBJECTIVE: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major health problem and one of the leading causes of death in adults older than 40. Multiple prior studies have demonstrated survival disparities based on race/ethnicity, but most of these focus on a single racial/ethnic group. This study evaluated OHCA variables and outcomes among on 5 racial/ethnic groups.

METHODS: This is a retrospective review of data for adult patients in the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) from 3 racially diverse urban counties in the San Francisco Bay Area from May 2009 to October 2021. Stratifying by 5 racial/ethnic groups, we evaluated patient survival outcomes based on patient demographics, emergency medical services response location, cardiac arrest characteristics, and hospital interventions. Adjusted risk ratios were calculated for survival to hospital discharge, controlling for sex, age, response locations, median income of response location, arrest witness, shockable rhythm, and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation as well as clustering by census tract.

RESULTS: There were 10,757 patient entries analyzed: 42% White, 24% Black, 18% Asian, 9.3% Hispanic, 6.0% Pacific Islander, 0.7% American Indian/Alaska Native, and 0.1% multiple races selected; however, only the first 5 racial/ethnic groups had sufficient numbers for comparison. The adjusted risk ratio for survival to hospital discharge was lower among the 4 racial/ethnic groups compared with the White reference group: Black (0.79, p = 0.003), Asian (0.78 p = 0.004), Hispanic (0.79, p = 0.018), and Pacific Islander (0.78, p = 0.041) groups. The risk difference for positive neurologic outcome was also lower among all 4 racial/ethnic groups compared with the White reference group.

CONCLUSIONS: The Black, Asian, Hispanic, and Pacific Islander groups were less likely to survive to hospital discharge from OHCA when compared with the White reference group. No variables were associated with decreased survival across any of these 4 groups.

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