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Surgical tactics of two-segmental cervical degenerative diseases: risk factors retrospective assessment and preoperative planning.

BACKGROUND: Currently, in the specialized literature there are no substantiated clinical and radiological indications for differentiated use of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) in the treatment of patients with two-segmental cervical degenerative diseases. The objectives of this study were to (I) identify risk factors that were associated with unsatisfactory results of two-level ACDF and one-level ACCF in the treatment of patients with cervical degenerative diseases despite current perioperative management, and (II) develop a clinical and radiological algorithm for personalized surgical tactics.

METHODS: We retrospectively identified risk factors for the development of unsatisfactory clinical postoperative results after two-level ACDF (n=81) and one-level ACCF (n=78), operated in the period of 2009-2019 for two-segmental cervical degenerative disease.

RESULTS: Satisfactory clinical results after two-level ACDF were noted in cases with total kyphotic deformity of less than 15°; local kyphotic deformity less than 10˚; the absence of circumferential spondylotic cervical stenosis; the absence of a myelopathic lesion at the level of the vertebral body; absence of migrating intervertebral disk (IVD) hernia more than 1/3 of the vertebral body; T1 slope vertebra less than 15°; IVD degeneration according to Suzuki A. 0-II; facet joint (FJ) degeneration according to Okamoto A. I-III; interbody height (IH) more than 2 mm. Satisfactory clinical results after single-level ACCF were registered in cases with IVD degeneration according to Suzuki A. III; FJ degeneration according to Okamoto A. IV-V; IH 3 mm or less; regardless of the cervical lordosis, the angle of local kyphotic deformity and T1 slope, the presence of circumferential spondylotic cervical stenosis, the localization of the myelopathic lesion and the distance of migration IVD herniation.

CONCLUSIONS: Individual planning and differentiated implementation of ACDF and ACCF in patients with two-segmental cervical degenerative disease, taking into account a comprehensive preoperative clinical and radiological assessment, contributes to the effective elimination of existing neurological symptoms, reducing the intensity of neck pain and upper limbs pain, restoring the functional state and quality of patients' lives in the minimum 24 months postoperative period, as well as reducing the number of postoperative complications and reoperations.

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