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Enhancing Cardiac Pacing Strategies: A Review of Conduction System Pacing Compared to Right and Biventricular Pacing and their influence on myocardial function.

Traditional right ventricular pacing has been linked to the deterioration of both left ventricular diastolic and systolic function. This worsening often culminates in elevated rates of hospitalization due to heart failure, an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, and increased morbidity. While biventricular pacing has demonstrated clinical and echocardiographic improvements in patients afflicted with heart failure and left bundle branch block, it has also encountered significant challenges, such as a notable portion of non-responders and procedural failures attributed to anatomical complexities. In recent time, the interest has shifted towards conduction system pacing, initially His bundle pacing and more recently left bundle branch area pacing, as promising alternatives to the established methods. In contrast to other approaches, conduction system pacing offers the advantage of fostering more physiological and harmonized ventricular activation by directly stimulating the His-Purkinje network. This direct pacing results in a more synchronized systolic and diastolic function of left ventricle compared to right ventricular pacing and biventricular pacing. Of particular note is conduction system pacing's capacity to yield shorter QRS, conserve left ventricular ejection fraction, and reduced rates of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation when compared to right ventricular pacing. The efficacy of conduction system pacing has also been found to have better clinical and echocardiographic improvement than biventricular pacing in patients requiring cardiac resynchronization. This review will delve into myocardial function in conduction system pacing compared to right ventricular pacing and biventricular pacing.

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