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Clinical Outcomes of Renal Transplant Recipients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes of patients with renal transplant (RT) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain poorly elucidated.

METHOD: Between 2014 and 2021, data were analysed for the following three groups of patients undergoing PCI enrolled in a multicentre Australian registry: (1) RT recipients (n=226), (2) patients on dialysis (n=992), and (3) chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 30‒60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 ) without previous RT (n=15,534). Primary outcome was 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs)-composite of mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, target vessel revascularisation, and stroke.

RESULTS: RT recipients were younger than dialysis and patients with CKD (61±10 vs 68±12 vs 78±8.2 years, p<0.001). Patients with RT less frequently had severe left ventricular dysfunction compared with dialysis and CKD groups (6.7% vs 14% and 8.5%); however more, often presented with acute coronary syndrome (58% vs 52% and 48%), especially STEMI (all p<0.001). Patients with RT and CKD had lower rates of 30-day MACCE (4.4% and 6.8% vs 11.6%, p<0.001) than the dialysis group. Three-year survival was similar between RT and CKD groups, however was lower in the dialysis group (80% and 83% vs 60%, p<0.001). After adjustment, dialysis was an independent predictor of 30-day MACCE (odds ratio [OR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44‒2.50, p<0.001), however RT was not (OR 0.91, CI 0.42‒1.96, p=0.802). Both RT (hazard ratio [HR] 2.07, CI 1.46‒2.95, p<0.001) and dialysis (HR 1.35, CI 1.02‒1.80, p=0.036) heightened the hazard of long-term mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: RT recipients have more favourable clinical outcomes following PCI compared with patients on dialysis. However, despite having similar short-term outcomes to patients with CKD, the hazard of long-term mortality is significantly greater for RT recipients.

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