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Identifying subgroups of patients that may benefit from robotic arm-assisted total knee arthroplasty: Secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial.

Knee 2024 April 2
BACKGROUND: The aims were to assess whether a specific subgroup(s) of patients had a clinically significant benefit in their knee specific outcome or health-related quality of life (HRQoL) when undergoing robotic total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) when compared to manually performed TKA (mTKA).

METHODS: One hundred patients were randomised to either rTKA or mTKA, 50 to each group, of which 46 and 41 were available for functional review at 6-months, respectively. Subgroup analysis was undertaken for sex, age (<67-years versus ≥ 67-years), preoperative WOMAC score (<40 versus ≥ 40) and EQ-5D utility (<0.604 versus ≥ 0.604).

RESULTS: Male patients undergoing rTKA had a clinically and statistically significant greater improvement in WOMAC pain (mean difference (MD) 16.3, p = 0.011) at 2-months, function (MD 12.6, p = 0.032) and total score (MD 12.7, p = 0.030), and OKS (MD 6.0, p = 0.030) at 6-months. Patients < 67-years old undergoing rTKA had a clinically and statistically significant greater improvement in WOMAC pain (MD 10.3, p = 0.039) at 2-months, and function (MD 12.9, p = 0.040) and total (MD 13.1, p = 0.038) scores at 6-months. Patients with a preoperative WOMAC total score of < 40 points undergoing rTKA had a clinically and statistically significant greater improvement in WOMAC pain (MD 14.6, p = 0.044) at 6-months. Patients with a preoperative EQ-5D utility of <0.604 undergoing rTKA had a clinically and statistically significant greater improvement in WOMAC pain (MD 15.5, p = 0.011) at 2-months.

CONCLUSION: Patients of male sex, younger age, worse preoperative knee specific function and HRQoL had a clinically significantly better early functional outcome with rTKA when compared to mTKA.

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