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Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening in Smokers: A Comprehensive Analysis Using a National Behavioral Survey.

Urology Practice 2024 April 3
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is associated with higher-risk prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis and increased overall and prostate cancer‒specific mortality. Previous studies indicate smokers are less likely to undergo PSA screening. Herein we investigate the association between smoking and PSA screening using a nationally representative US survey. We hypothesize that smokers are less likely to undergo guideline-concordant PSA screening.

METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of men aged 55 to 69 who responded to the cigarette smoking and PSA screening questions of the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Adjusted prevalence and adjusted risk differences were calculated using complex weighted multivariable Poisson regression modeling.

RESULTS: We identified 58,996 individuals who qualified for analysis. PSA screening prevalence was 39% (95% CI: 39%-40%) nationally, 42% (95% CI: 41%-44%) for never smokers, 42% (95% CI: 39%-40%) for former smokers, and 27% (95% CI: 25%-29%) for current smokers, including 27% (95% CI: 24%-29%) for daily smokers and 29% (95% CI: 24%-33%) for nondaily smokers. Compared to never smokers, the adjusted relative risk for undergoing PSA screening was 0.81 for current smokers (95% CI: 0.75-0.88, P < .01) and 0.99 for former smokers (95% CI: 0.94-1.03, P = .53).

CONCLUSIONS: Current smokers are less likely to undergo recommended PSA screening, but former smokers are screened at similar rates as never smokers. As delays in diagnosis may substantially contribute to worse prostate cancer outcomes, targeted interventions to increase screening in this population may yield significant effects.

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