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Kinetics of Intermediate Release Enhances P450 11B2-Catalyzed Aldosterone Synthesis.

Biochemistry 2024 April 3
The mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome P450 11B2 (aldosterone synthase) catalyzes the 3 terminal transformations in the biosynthesis of aldosterone from 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC): 11β-hydroxylation to corticosterone, 18-hydroxylation, and 18-oxidation. Prior studies have shown that P450 11B2 produces more aldosterone from DOC than from the intermediate corticosterone and that the reaction sequence is processive, with intermediates remaining bound to the active site between oxygenation reactions. In contrast, P450 11B1 (11β-hydroxylase), which catalyzes the terminal step in cortisol biosynthesis, shares a 93% amino acid sequence identity with P450 11B2, converts DOC to corticosterone, but cannot synthesize aldosterone from DOC. The biochemical and biophysical properties of P450 11B2, which enable its unique 18-oxygenation activity and processivity, yet are not also represented in P450 11B1, remain unknown. To understand the mechanism of aldosterone biosynthesis, we introduced point mutations at residue 320, which partially exchange the activities of P450 11B1 and P450 11B2 (V320A and A320V, respectively). We then investigated NADPH coupling efficiencies, binding kinetics and affinities, and product formation of purified P450 11B1 and P450 11B2, wild-type, and residue 320 mutations in phospholipid vesicles and nanodiscs. Coupling efficiencies for the 18-hydroxylase reaction with corticosterone as the substrate failed to correlate with aldosterone synthesis, ruling out uncoupling as a relevant mechanism. Conversely, corticosterone dissociation rates correlated inversely with aldosterone production. We conclude that intermediate dissociation kinetics, not coupling efficiency, enable P450 11B2 to synthesize aldosterone via a processive mechanism. Our kinetic data also suggest that the binding of DOC to P450 11B enzymes occurs in at least two distinct steps, favoring an induced-fit mechanism.

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