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Efficacy and Safety of Bleselumab in Preventing the Recurrence of Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Phase 2a, Randomized, Multicenter Study.

Transplantation 2024 April 2
BACKGROUND: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common cause of end-stage kidney disease and frequently recurs after kidney transplantation. Recurrent FSGS (rFSGS) is associated with poor allograft and patient outcomes. Bleselumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G4 anti-CD40 antagonistic monoclonal antibody, disrupts CD40-related processes in FSGS, potentially preventing rFSGS.

METHODS: A phase 2a, randomized, multicenter, open-label study of adult recipients (aged ≥18 y) of a living or deceased donor kidney transplant with a history of biopsy-proven primary FSGS. The study assessed the efficacy of bleselumab combined with tacrolimus and corticosteroids as maintenance immunosuppression in the prevention of rFSGS >12 mo posttransplantation, versus standard of care (SOC) comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. All patients received basiliximab induction. The primary endpoint was rFSGS, defined as proteinuria (protein-creatinine ratio ≥3.0 g/g) with death, graft loss, or loss to follow-up imputed as rFSGS, through 3 mo posttransplant.

RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were followed for 12 mo posttransplantation. Relative decrease in rFSGS occurrence through 3 mo with bleselumab versus SOC was 40.7% (95% confidence interval, -89.8 to 26.8; P = 0.37; absolute decrease 12.7% [95% confidence interval, -34.5 to 9.0]). Central-blinded biopsy review found relative (absolute) decreases in rFSGS of 10.9% (3.9%), 17.0% (6.2%), and 20.5% (7.5%) at 3, 6, and 12 mo posttransplant, respectively; these differences were not statistically significant. Adverse events were similar for both treatments. No deaths occurred during the study.

CONCLUSIONS: In at-risk kidney transplant recipients, bleselumab numerically reduced proteinuria occurrence versus SOC, but no notable difference in occurrence of biopsy-proven rFSGS was observed.

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