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Multifunctional host-defense peptides isolated from skin secretions of the banana tree dwelling frog Boana platanera (Hylidae; Hylinae).

Biochimie 2024 March 31
Five host-defense peptides (figainin 2PL, hylin PL, raniseptin PL, plasticin PL, and peptide YL) were isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the banana tree dwelling frog Boana platanera (Hylidae; Hylinae) collected in Trinidad. Raniseptin PL (GVFDTVKKIGKAVGKFALGVAKNYLNS.NH2 ) and figainin 2PL (FLGTVLKLGKAIAKTVVPMLTNAMQP KQ.NH2 ) showed potent and rapid bactericidal activity against a range of clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative ESKAPE +  pathogens and Clostridioides difficile. The peptides also showed potent cytotoxic activity (LC50 values < 30 μM) against A549, MDA-MB-231 and HT29 human tumor-derived cell lines but appreciably lower hemolytic activity against mouse erythrocytes (LC50  = 262 ± 14 μM for raniseptin PL and 157 ± 16 μM for figainin 2PL). Hylin PL (FLGLIPALAGAIGNLIK.NH2 ) showed relatively weak activity against microorganisms but was more hemolytic. The glycine-leucine-rich peptide with structural similarity to the plasticins (GLLSTVGGLVGGLL NNLGL.NH2 ) and the non-cytotoxic peptide YL (YVPGVIESLL.NH2 ) lacked antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Hylin PL, raniseptin-PL and peptide YL stimulated the rate of release of insulin from BRIN-BD11 clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥100 nM. Peptide YL was the most effective (2.3-fold increase compared with basal rate at 1 μM concentration) and may represent a template for the design of a new class of incretin-based anti-diabetic drugs.

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