Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Systematic Review
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Clinical outcomes and complications of eyelid versus eyebrow approaches to supraorbital craniotomy: systematic review and indirect meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: Eyebrow supraorbital craniotomy is a versatile keyhole technique for treating intracranial pathologies. The eyelid supraorbital approach, an alternative approach to an eyebrow supraorbital craniotomy, has not been widely adopted among most neurosurgeons. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to perform a pooled analysis of the complications of eyebrow or eyelid approaches for the treatment of aneurysms, meningiomas, and orbital tumors.

METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Review databases was conducted for identifying relevant literature using keywords such as "supraorbital," "eyelid," "eyebrow," "tumor," and "aneurysm." Eyebrow supraorbital craniotomies with or without orbitotomies and eyelid supraorbital craniotomies with orbitotomies for the treatment of orbital tumors, intracranial meningiomas, and aneurysms were selected. The primary outcomes were overall complications, cosmetic complications, and residual aneurysms and tumors. Secondary outcomes included five complication domains: orbital, wound-related, scalp or facial, neurological, and other complications.

RESULTS: One hundred three articles were included in the synthesis. The pooled numbers of patients in the eyebrow and eyelid groups were 4689 and 358, respectively. No differences were found in overall complications or cosmetic complications between the eyebrow and eyelid groups. The proportion of residuals in the eyelid group (11.21%, effect size [ES] 0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.41) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the eyebrow group (6.17%, ES 0.10, 95% CI 0.08-0.13). A subgroup analysis demonstrated significantly higher incidences of orbital, wound-related, and scalp or facial complications in the eyelid group (p < 0.05), but higher other complications in the eyebrow group. Performing an orbitotomy substantially increased the complication risk.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first meta-analysis that quantitatively compared complications of eyebrow versus eyelid approaches to supraorbital craniotomy. This study found similar overall complication rates but higher rates of selected complication domains in the eyelid group. The literature is limited by a high degree of variability in the reported outcomes.

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