Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

The perception of time is slowed in response to exercise, an effect not further compounded by competitors: behavioral implications for exercise and health.

INTRODUCTION: The theory of relativity postulates that time is relative to context and exercise seems such a situation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether situational factors such as perceived exertion and the introduction of an opponent influence competitors' perception of time.

METHODS: Thirty-three recreationally active adults (F = 16; M = 17) performed three standardized 4-km cycling trials in a randomized order. Velotron 3D software was used to create a visual, virtual environment representing (1) a solo time trial (FAM and SO), (2) a time trial with a passive opponent avatar (PO), and (3) a time trial with an opponent avatar and participant instruction to actively finish the trial before the opponent (AO). Participants were asked to estimate a 30-s time period using a standardized protocol for reproducibility before exercise at 500 m, 1500 m, 2500 m, and post exercise. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured throughout the trials.

RESULTS: Exercise trials revealed that time was perceived to run "slow" compared to chronological time during exercise compared to resting and post-exercise measurements (p < 0.001). There was no difference between exercise conditions (SO, PO, and AO) or time points (500 m, 1500 m, and 2500 m). RPE increased throughout the trials.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that exercise both with and without the influence of opponents influences time perception. This finding has important implications for healthy exercise choices and also for optimal performance. Independent of RPE, time was perceived to move slower during exercise, underpinning inaccurate pacing and decision-making across physical activities.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app