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The impact of a second embryo biopsy for preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic diseases (PGT-M) with inconclusive results on pregnancy potential: results from a matched case-control study.

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether a second biopsy, following a first diagnostic failure on blastocysts tested for preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic diseases (PGT-M), allows to obtain genetic diagnosis and to what extent this procedure can influence clinical pregnancy and live birth rates compared to the PGT-M process with a successful genetic diagnosis from the first biopsy.

METHODS: Embryos from women who underwent PGT-M in an infertility centre and who had been transferred after two biopsies for genetic analysis (n = 27) were matched in a 1:1 ratio accordingly to women's age (± 1 year) and fertility status (fertile vs infertile), as well as with the study period, with embryos who were transferred after receiving a conclusive PGT result straight after the first biopsy (n = 27). The main evaluated outcome was clinical pregnancy rate following embryo transfers in which healthy embryos were transferred after only one biopsy and those in which an embryo was transferred after being re-biopsied. Live birth rate was the secondary outcome.

RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rate was 52% (95% CI: 34-69) following the transfer of a single-biopsy blastocyst and 30% (95% CI: 16-48) following the transfer of a re-biopsied blastocyst. The likelihood to have a healthy baby was 33% (95% CI: 19-52) following the transfer of a blastocyst biopsied once and 22% (95% CI: 11-41) following the transfer of a re-biopsied blastocyst.

CONCLUSIONS: The re-biopsy intervention seems to considerably reduce the pregnancy potential of a blastocyst. However, a greater sample size is necessary to clarify this issue definitively.

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