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Cutaneous borreliosis in children - a challenging problem.

Borreliosis, also known as Lyme disease, is a vector-borne disease caused by different species of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex. It is frequent in Europe and Northern America. The major vectors are ixodoid ticks. Paediatric borreliosis is common and peaks in children between five to nine years. In Europe, the leading symptom of early infection is erythema migrans, in contrast to Northern America where arthritis is the dominating clinical finding. In this review, we focus on Europe, where cutaneous borreliosis is mainly caused by infection with B. afzelii. The cutaneous symptoms include erythema migrans, lymphocytoma, chronic atrophic dermatitis and juxta-articular nodules. In children, lymphocytoma is very common but chronic atrophic dermatitis is rare. Clinical symptoms, diagnosis, peculiarities of childhood disease and treatment are also reviewed. It is important to note that after haematogeneic spread, signs of infection may be non-specific, and this is a challenge for diagnosis.

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