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Factors associated with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy among patients with hypertension in Thailand.

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) strongly predicts cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and death. One-fourth of Thai adults suffer from hypertension. Nevertheless, the information on LVH among Thai patients with hypertension is not well characterized. We aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with electrocardiographic LVH (ECG-LVH) among patients with hypertension in Thailand.

METHODS: The present study obtained the dataset from the Thailand Diabetes Mellitus/Hypertension study, which included hypertension patients aged 20 years and older receiving continuous care at outpatient clinics in hospitals nationwide in 2011-2015 and 2018. Meanwhile, those without a record of 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) were excluded from the analysis. ECG-LVH was defined as the LVH noted regarding ECG interpretation in the medical records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized for determining factors associated with ECG-LVH and presented as the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

RESULTS: From 226,420 hypertensive patients in the Thailand Diabetes Mellitus/Hypertension study, 38,807 individuals (17.1%) with ECG data recorded were included in the analysis. The mean age was 64.8 ± 11.5 years, and 62.2% were women. Overall, 1,557 study participants had ECG-LVH, with an estimated prevalence of 4.0% (95% CI, 3.8-4.2%). Age-adjusted ECG-LVH prevalence among women and men was 3.4 and 5.1%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis determined factors associated with ECG-LVH, including being men (AOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.31-1.69), individuals aged 70 to 79 years (AOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.20-2.02) and ≥ 80 years (AOR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.58-2.78) compared to individuals aged less than 50 years, current smokers (AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) compared to those who never smoked, systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.30-1.92) compared to systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg.

CONCLUSIONS: The current study illustrated the prevalence of ECG-LVH among Thai patients with hypertension who had ECG recorded and identified high-risk groups who tended to have ECG-LVH. The findings underscore the need for targeted interventions, particularly among high-risk groups such as older individuals, men, and current smokers, to address modifiable factors associated with ECG-LVH.

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