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First-line sintilimab with pegaspargase, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin in advanced extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (SPIRIT): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematology 2024 March 28
BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor sintilimab is effective in relapsed and refractory extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of sintilimab plus P-GEMOX (pegaspargase, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin) in the first-line setting for advanced ENKTL.

METHODS: The multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial was done at three medical centres in China. Patients aged 18-75 years with treatment-naive pathologically confirmed advanced ENKTL and an with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2 were eligible. Patients received intravenous sintilimab (200 mg on day 1), intramuscular pegaspargase (2000 U/m2 on day 1), intravenous gemcitabine (1 g/m2 on days 1 and 8), and intravenous oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 on day 1) every 3 weeks for six cycles, followed by intravenous sintilimab (200 mg) every 3 weeks for up to 2 years or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicities. The primary endpoint was the complete response rate in the intention-to-treat population. The secondary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04127227. Enrolment has been completed, and follow-up is ongoing.

FINDINGS: Between Nov 29, 2019, and Sept 7, 2022, 34 eligible patients were enrolled (median age 39 years [IQR 32-55]; 25 [74%] of 34 patients were male; nine [26%] were female; and all were of Asian ethnicity). At the data cutoff (July 20, 2023), the median follow-up was 21 months (IQR 13-32). The complete response rate was 85% (29 of 34 patients, 95% CI 70-94). Five patients (15%; 95% CI 7-30) attained partial response and the ORR was 100% (34 of 34 patients). 24-month PFS was 64% (95% CI 48-86), 24-month DFS was 72% (54-95), and 36-month overall survival was 76% (52-100). The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (17 [50%] of 34 patients), anaemia (10 [29%] patients), and hypertriglyceridemia (10 [29%] patients). Hypothyroidism was the most frequent immune-related adverse event (18 [53%]), including grade 3 hypothyroidism in one (3%) patient that caused treatment termination. No severe adverse events occurred. There were three deaths: one due to haemophagocytic syndrome, one due to disease progression, and one due to unknown cause, which were not considered to be treatment related.

INTERPRETATION: Combination of sintilimab with P-GEMOX seems to be an active and safe first-line regimen for patients with advanced ENKTL.

FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program and National Natural Science Foundation of China, Guangzhou Science and Technology Program and the Clinical Oncology Foundation of Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology.

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