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Artificial intelligence and machine learning: Definition of terms and current concepts in critical care research.

With increasing computing power, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have prospered, which facilitate the analysis of large datasets, especially those found in critical care. It is important to define these terminologies, to inform a standardized approach to critical care research. This manuscript hopes to clarify these terms with examples from medical literature. Three major components that are required for a successful ML implementation: (i) reliable dataset, (ii) ML algorithm, and (iii) unbiased model evaluation, are discussed. A reliable dataset can be structured or unstructured with limited noise, outliers, and missing values. ML, a subset of AI, is typically focused on supervised or unsupervised learning tasks in which the output is based on inputs and derived from iterative pattern recognition algorithms, while AI is the overall ability of a machine to "think" or mimic human behavior; and to analyze data free from human influence. Even with successful implementation, advanced AI and ML algorithms have faced challenges in adoption into practice, mainly due to their lack of interpretability, which hinders trust, buy-in, and engagement from clinicians. Consequently, traditional algorithms, such as linear and logistic regression, that may have reduced predictive power but are highly interpretable, continue to be widely used.

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