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Glans penis volume is associated with lifelong premature ejaculation.

BACKGROUND: Although premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.

AIM: The study sought to evaluate the possible associations among glans penis volume and tissue stiffness measured using penile ultrasonography and penile shear wave elastography (SWE) with PE.

METHODS: Men 18 to 65 years of age with normal International Index of Erectile Function scores (>25) and who were diagnosed with PE between June 2021 and June 2022 were enrolled. The Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool score and intravaginal ejaculation latency times were recorded. Healthy volunteers constituted the control group. The study group was divided into lifelong PE (LLPE) and acquired PE (AqPE) subgroups. In all groups, the glans penis volume was measured via penile ultrasonography and tissue stiffness of the glans penis, penile frenulum, postcircumcision mucosal cuff, and penile shaft were measured via SWE. The findings of the groups were compared using appropriate statistical methods.

OUTCOMES: The outcomes included ultrasonographic and elastographic measurements of the glans penis.

RESULTS: Data on 140 men, including 70 PE patients and 70 healthy volunteers, were evaluated. Of the patients, 20 had LLPE and 50 had AqPE. The median glans penis volume was significantly greater in the LLPE group (14.1 [range, 6.6-19] mm3) compared with the AqPE group (11.7 [range, 5.1-27] mm3) and control group (11.4 [range, 6.1-32] mm3) (P = .03). According to the Youden index, the best cutoff value for glans penis volume in LLPE compared with non-LLPE (AqPE + control) was 12.65 mm3 (area under the curve, 0.684; 95% confidence interval, 0.556-0.812; P = .009). The risk of having LLPE in those with a glans penis volume ≥12.65 mm3 was 3.326 (95% confidence interval, 1.234-8.965) times higher than the non-LLPE group (P = .014). There were no significant differences between the groups in the SWE evaluation of glans penis, penile frenulum, mucosal cuff, and penile shaft tissue stiffness.

CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The high incidence of PE in those with high glans penis volume may make glans penis volume a predictor for the development of LLPE.

STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This was the first study to show that PE is more common in individuals with a high glans penis volume. It was also the first to perform a penile elastographic evaluation in patients with PE. The most important limitation was that we did not evaluate glans penile nerve function with a test, but rather we made an indirect inference about the density of free nerve endings based on increased glans penile volume.

CONCLUSION: Glans penis volume was a significant predictor for LLPE. However, there are no associations between PE and the glans penis, postcircumcision mucosal cuff, penile frenulum, or penile shaft tissue stiffness and development.

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