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Brexanolone Treatment in a Real-World Patient Population: A Case Series and Pilot Feasibility Study of Precision Neuroimaging.

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Brexanolone is approved for postpartum depression (PPD) by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Brexanolone has outperformed placebo in clinical trials, but less is known about the efficacy in real-world patients with complex social and medical histories. Furthermore, the impact of brexanolone on large-scale brain systems such as changes in functional connectivity (FC) is unknown.

METHODS/PROCEDURES: We tracked changes in depressive symptoms across a diverse group of patients who received brexanolone at a large medical center. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores were collected through chart review for 17 patients immediately prior to infusion through approximately 1 year postinfusion. In 2 participants, we performed precision functional neuroimaging (pfMRI), including before and after treatment in 1 patient. pfMRI collects many hours of data in individuals for precision medicine applications and was performed to assess the feasibility of investigating changes in FC with brexanolone.

FINDINGS/RESULTS: The mean EPDS score immediately postinfusion was significantly lower than the mean preinfusion score (mean change [95% CI]: 10.76 [7.11-14.40], t(15) = 6.29, P < 0.0001). The mean EPDS score stayed significantly lower at 1 week (mean difference [95% CI]: 9.50 [5.23-13.76], t(11) = 4.90, P = 0.0005) and 3 months (mean difference [95% CI]: 9.99 [4.71-15.27], t(6) = 4.63, P = 0.0036) postinfusion. Widespread changes in FC followed infusion, which correlated with EPDS scores.

IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Brexanolone is a successful treatment for PPD in the clinical setting. In conjunction with routine clinical care, brexanolone was linked to a reduction in symptoms lasting at least 3 months. pfMRI is feasible in postpartum patients receiving brexanolone and has the potential to elucidate individual-specific mechanisms of action.

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