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Fetus with multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by novel variant in ATP1A2.

Prenatal Diagnosis 2024 March 29
We report a 32-year-old G3P1 at 35 weeks 3 days with a dichorionic, diamniotic twin gestation who presented for evaluation secondary to ventriculomegaly (VM) in one twin. Fetal ultrasound and MRI demonstrated microcephaly, severe VM, compression of the corpus callosum, scalp and nuchal thickening, elongated ears, bilateral talipes, right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and loss of normal cerebral architecture, indicative of a prior insult in the affected twin. The co-twin was grossly normal. The family pursued a palliative care pathway for the affected twin and was delivered at 37 weeks and 6 days. The affected twin passed away within the first hour of life due to respiratory compromise. Postmortem trio exome sequencing identified a homozygous likely pathogenic variant in ATP1A2 (c.2439+1G>A). Although this variant is novel, it is predicted to affect the donor split site in intron 17, resulting in a frameshift and complete loss-of-function of the gene. Biallelic loss of function variants in this gene have been reported in seven individuals with multiple anomalies similar to those in the affected twin. However, only one other individual with a possible CDH has been previously reported. Our case suggests that CDH be included in the phenotypic spectrum of this disorder and reports the first frameshift mutation causing this autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome.

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