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Adequacy of basal metabolic rate prediction equations in individuals with severe obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obesity Reviews 2024 March 29
The determination of energy requirements in clinical practice is based on basal metabolic rate (BMR), frequently predicted by equations that may not be suitable for individuals with severe obesity. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the accuracy and precision of BMR prediction equations in adults with severe obesity. Four databases were searched in March 2021 and updated in May 2023. Eligible studies compared BMR prediction equations with BMR measured by indirect calorimetry. Forty studies (age: 28-55 years, BMI: 40.0-62.4 kg/m2 ) were included, most of them with a high risk of bias. Studies reporting bias (difference between estimated and measured BMR) were included in the meta-analysis (n = 20). Six equations were meta-analyzed: Harris & Benedict (1919); WHO (weight) (1985); Owen (1986); Mifflin (1990); Bernstein (1983); and Cunningham (1980). The most accurate and precise equations in the overall analysis were WHO (-12.44 kcal/d; 95%CI: -81.4; 56.5 kcal/d) and Harris & Benedict (-18.9 kcal/d; 95%CI -73.2; 35.2 kcal/d). All the other equations tended to underestimate BMR. Harris & Benedict and WHO were the equations with higher accuracy and precision in predicting BMR in individuals with severe obesity. Additional analyses suggested that equations may perform differently according to obesity BMI ranges, which warrants further investigation.

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