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Dual Drug Nanoparticle Synergistically Induced Apoptosis, Suppressed Inflammation and Protected Autophagic Response in Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes.

Immunology Letters 2024 March 26
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-mediated joint inflammatory disorder associated with the aberrant activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Recently, FLS has gained importance due to its crucial role in RA pathogenesis, and thus, targeting FLS has been suggested as an attractive treatment strategy for RA. FLS-targeted approaches may be combined with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and natural phytochemicals to improve efficacy in RA control and negate immunosuppression. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effectiveness of DD NP HG in primary RA-FLS cells isolated from the synovial tissue of FCA-induced RA rats. We observed that DD NP HG had good biosafety for healthy FLS cells and, at higher concentrations, a mild inhibitory effect on RA-FLS. The combination therapy (DD NP HG) of MTX NP and PEITC NE in RA-FLS showed a higher rate of apoptosis with significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-6) in arthritic FLSs. Further, the gene expression studies showed that DD NP HG significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of IL-1β, RANKL, NFATc1, DKK1, Bcl-xl, Mcl-1, Atg12, and ULK-1, and up-regulated the mRNA expression of OPG, PUMA, NOXA and SQSTM1 in LPS-stimulated RA-FLS cells. Collectively, our results demonstrated that DD NP HG significantly inhibited the RA-FLS proliferation via inducing apoptosis, down-regulating the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and further enhancing the expression of genes associated with bone destruction in RA pathogenesis. A nanotechnology approach is a promising strategy for the co-delivery of dual drugs to regulate the RA-FLS function and achieve synergistic treatment of RA.

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