Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

High-throughput mRNA sequencing of human placenta shows sex differences across gestation.

Placenta 2024 March 22
INTRODUCTION: Fetal sex affects fetal and maternal health outcomes in pregnancy, but this connection remains poorly understood. As the placenta is the route of fetomaternal communication and derives from the fetal genome, placental gene expression sex differences may explain these outcomes.

OBJECTIVES: We utilized next generation sequencing to study the normal human placenta in both sexes in first and third trimester to generate a normative transcriptome based on sex and gestation.

STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 124 first trimester (T1, 59 female and 65 male) and 43 third trimester (T3, 18 female and 25 male) samples for sex differences within each trimester and sex-specific gestational differences.

RESULTS: Placenta shows more significant sexual dimorphism in T1, with 94 T1 and 26 T3 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The sex chromosomes contributed 60.6% of DEGs in T1 and 80.8% of DEGs in T3, excluding X/Y pseudoautosomal regions. There were 6 DEGs from the pseudoautosomal regions, only significant in T1 and all upregulated in males. The distribution of DEGs on the X chromosome suggests genes on Xp (the short arm) may be particularly important in placental sex differences. Dosage compensation analysis of X/Y homolog genes shows expression is primarily contributed by the X chromosome. In sex-specific analyses of first versus third trimester, there were 2815 DEGs common to both sexes upregulated in T1, and 3263 common DEGs upregulated in T3. There were 7 female-exclusive DEGs upregulated in T1, 15 female-exclusive DEGs upregulated in T3, 10 male-exclusive DEGs upregulated in T1, and 20 male-exclusive DEGs upregulated in T3.

DISCUSSION: This is the largest cohort of placentas across gestation from healthy pregnancies defining the normative sex dimorphic gene expression and sex common, sex specific and sex exclusive gene expression across gestation. The first trimester has the most sexually dimorphic transcripts, and the majority were upregulated in females compared to males in both trimesters. The short arm of the X chromosome and the pseudoautosomal region is particularly critical in defining sex differences in the first trimester placenta. As pregnancy is a dynamic state, sex specific DEGs across gestation may contribute to sex dimorphic changes in overall outcomes.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app