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Multiparametric MRI-based intratumoral and peritumoral radiomics for predicting the pathological differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Insights Into Imaging 2024 March 28
PURPOSE: To explore the predictive potential of intratumoral and multiregion peritumoral radiomics features extracted from multiparametric MRI for predicting pathological differentiation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.

METHODS: A total of 265 patients with 277 HCCs (training cohort n = 193, validation cohort n = 84) who underwent preoperative MRI were retrospectively analyzed. The risk factors identified through stepwise regression analysis were utilized to construct a clinical model. Radiomics models based on MRI (arterial phase, portal venous phase, delayed phase) across various regions (entire tumor, Peri_5mm, Peri_10mm, Peri_20mm) were developed using the LASSO approach. The features obtained from the intratumoral region and the optimal peritumoral region were combined to design the IntraPeri fusion model. Model performance was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC).

RESULTS: Larger size, non-smooth margins, and mosaic architecture were risk factors for poorly differentiated HCC (pHCC). The clinical model achieved AUCs of 0.77 and 0.73 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively, while the intratumoral model achieved corresponding AUC values of 0.92 and 0.82. The Peri_10mm model demonstrated superior performance to the Peri_5mm and Peri_20mm models, with AUC values of 0.87 vs. 0.84 vs. 0.73 in the training cohort and 0.80 vs. 0.77 vs. 0.68 in the validation cohort, respectively. The IntraPeri model exhibited remarkable AUC values of 0.95 and 0.86 in predicting pHCC in the training and validation cohorts, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the potential of a multiparametric MRI-based radiomic model that integrates intratumoral and peritumoral features as a tool for predicting HCC differentiation.

CRITICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: Both clinical and multiparametric MRI-based radiomic models, particularly the intratumoral radiomic model, are non-invasive tools for predicting HCC differentiation. Importantly, the IntraPeri fusion model exhibited remarkable predictiveness for individualized HCC differentiation.

KEY POINTS: • Both the intratumoral radiomics model and clinical features were useful for predicting HCC differentiation. • The Peri_10mm radiomics model demonstrated better diagnostic ability than other peritumoral region-based models. • The IntraPeri radiomics fusion model outperformed the other models for predicting HCC differentiation.

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