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Accuracy of a Non-Invasive Home Glucose Monitor for Measurement of Blood Glucose.

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes mellitus monitor their blood glucose at home with monitors that require a drop of blood or use a continuous glucose monitoring device that implants a small needle in the body. However, both cause discomfort to the patients which may inhibit them for regular blood glucose checks. Photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensing technology is an approach for non-invasive blood glucose measurement and PPG sensors can be used to predict hypoglycaemic episodes. InChcek is a PPG-based non-invasive glucose monitor. However, its accuracy has not been checked yet. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of InCheck, a non-invasive glucose monitor for the estimation of blood glucose.

METHODS: In a tertiary care hospital, patients who came for blood glucose estimation were tested for blood glucose non-invasively on the InCheck device and then by the laboratory method (glucose oxidase-peroxidase). These two readings were compared. We used International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 (95% of values should be within ± 15 mg/dL of reference reading if reference glucose <100 mg/dL or within ± 15% of reference reading if reference glucose ≥100 mg/dL and 99% of the values should be within zones A and B in consensus error grid), and Surveillance Error Grid for analyzing the accuracy.

RESULTS: A total of 1223 samples were analyzed. There was a significant difference between the reference method glucose level (135 [Q1-Q3: 97 - 179] mg/dL) and monitor-measured glucose level (188.33 [Q1-Q3: 167.33-209.33] mg/dL) (P < 0.0001). A total of 18.5% of readings were following ISO 15197:2013 criteria and 67.25% of coordinates were within zone A and zone B of the consensus error grid. In the surveillance error grid analysis, about 29.4% of values were in the no-risk zone, 51.8% in slight risk, 18.6% in moderate risk, and 0.2% were in the severe risk zone.

CONCLUSION: The accuracy of the InCheck device for the estimation of blood glucose by PPG signal is not following the recommended guidelines. Hence, further research is necessary for programming or redesigning the hardware and software for a better result from this optical sensor-based non-invasive home glucose monitor.

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