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A case of paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria complicated by latent syphilis.

An 80-year-old man presented in December with the main complaint of jaundice. Blood tests revealed hemolytic anemia and renal dysfunction. Positive syphilis serology results led to a diagnosis of untreated latent syphilis. A positive direct Coombs test led to a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Antibiotics were started for the syphilis, with improvement in the anemia and renal dysfunction observed. However, paroxysmal intravascular hemolysis occurred after his discharge. Based on a positive Donath-Landsteiner (D-L) test, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) diagnosis was made. The hemolytic anemia improved after further treatment for syphilis, and further avoiding exposure to cold.

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