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Radiology domain in the diagnosis of IgG4-RD according to the 2019 American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism classification.

Insights Into Imaging 2024 March 27
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of radiology-related inclusion criteria of the 2019 ACR-EULAR classification system in the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD).

METHODS: This retrospective single-institution study included patients who received a diagnosis of IgG4-RD between January 2010 and December 2020. Two abdominal radiologists independently reviewed baseline imaging studies and scored radiology findings according to the 2019 ACR-EULAR classification criteria. Additional scores were assigned based on serological, histopathological, and immunostaining features.

RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (58 males and 16 females) with a mean age of 59.3 ± 13.9 years diagnosed with IgG4-RD were included. 51/74 (68.9%) were classified as having IgG4-RD according to the 2019 ACR-EULAR classification criteria. To reach a score ≥ 20 in these 51 patients, the radiology domain was sufficient in 20/51 (39.2%) and adding the serology domain was required for another 20/51 (39.2%). The remaining 11/51 patients (21.6%) required the histopathology and immunostaining domains. Radiological involvement of two or more organs at presentation was significantly associated with a score of ≥ 20 and seen in 43/51 (84.3%) compared to 5/23 (21.7%) of the non-classified group (p < 0.001). The group classified as having IgG4-RD showed a significantly higher proportion of elevated IgG4 levels (39/51, 76.5%) than the non-classified group (8/23, 34.8%) (< 0.001).

CONCLUSION: The study findings support the effectiveness of the radiology-related inclusion criteria of the 2019 ACR-EULAR classification system in diagnosing IgG4-RD. Combining radiology and serology domains achieved the cut-off in 80% of IgG-RD patients, enabling non-invasive diagnosis. The classification of IgG4-RD was significantly associated with multi-organ involvement, particularly affecting the pancreas and biliary system.

CRITICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: This study is the first to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the radiology domain in the 2019 ACR-EULAR classification criteria. The study results confirm its utility and potential to enable non-invasive diagnosis when combined with serological testing in a significant proportion of patients.

KEY POINTS: • A significant proportion of patients can be diagnosed with IgG4-RD using the radiology and serology domains exclusively. • Multi-organ involvement is significantly associated with classifying patients as IgG4-RD, with the pancreas and biliary system most frequently affected. • A high level of inter-reader agreement in the scoring of the radiology domain supports its reliability.

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