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Value of rapid on-site evaluation combined with interventional pulmonology techniques in the diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) combined with computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy (CT-PNB) or radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial lung biopsy (EBUS-TBLB) for pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC).

METHODS: Clinical data of 33 patients diagnosed with PC at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University between February 2018 and June 2023 were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into the CT-PNB and EBUS-TBLB groups based on the intervention method, and the diagnostic positivity rate and incidence of complications were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: Compared with the final diagnosis, the positive diagnostic rates of ROSE, histopathology and serum CrAg of all patients were 81.8% (27/33), 72.7% (24/33) and 63.6% (21/33), respectively. The average turnaround times of the three methods were 0.1 (0.1-0.2) h, 96.0 (48.0-120.0) h and 7.8 (4.5-13.6) h, respectively (P < 0.001). The coincidence rate between histopathology and ROSE was 84.8% with a kappa value of 0.574. The positive diagnostic rate for PC was significantly higher in the CT-PNB group than in the EBUS-TBLB group (92.9% vs. 57.9%), and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Combined with the ROSE results, the positive diagnostic rate in the EBUS-TBLB group increased to 84.2% (16/19).

CONCLUSION: ROSE has commendable accuracy and timeliness, and CT-PNB offers further advantages in this regard. ROSE enhances the diagnostic efficiency of EBUS-TBLB for PC and is safe and effective.

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