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Surgical Management of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Beyond Tonsillectomy & Adenoidectomy: Tongue Base and Larynx.

Pediatric patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after adenotonsillectomy often have additional sites of upper airway obstruction such as the tongue base or larynx. Sleep endoscopy and cross-sectional, dynamic imaging can be used to direct surgical management of persistent OSA. The tongue base is one of the most common sites of obstruction in children with persistent OSA, especially for patients with Trisomy 21. Lingual tonsillectomy, tongue suspension, and/or posterior midline glossectomy may be used to address lingual tonsil hypertrophy and tongue base obstruction. Epiglottopexy and/or supraglottoplasty may be used to address laryngomalacia and epiglottic prolapse resulting in OSA.

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