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Histamine and Receptors in Neuroinflammation: Their Roles on neurodegenerative diseases.

Histamine, an auto-reactive substance and mediator of inflammation, is synthesized from histidine through the action of histidine decarboxylase (HDC). It primarily acts on histamine receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence suggests that histamine and its receptors play a crucial role in neuroinflammation, thereby modulating the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that histamine regulates the phenotypic switching of microglia and astrocytes, inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and alleviates inflammatory responses. In the CNS, our research group has also found that histamine and its receptors are involved in regulating inflammatory responses and play a central role in ameliorating chronic neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will discuss the role of histamine and its receptors in neuroinflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases, potentially providing a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases in clinical settings.

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