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Risk factors for unfavorable outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in elderly patients.

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) of the elderly is a devastating form of stroke with a high morbidity and economic burden. There is still a limited understanding of the risk factors for an unfavorable outcome where a surgical therapy may be less meaningful. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcome and time to death in surgically treated elderly patients with SICH.

METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study of 70 patients (age > 60 years) with SICH operated between 2008 and 2020. Functional outcome was assessed by modified Rankin Scale. Various clinical and neuroradiological variables including type of neurosurgical treatment, anatomical location of hemorrhage, volumetry and distribution of hemorrhage were assessed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed. Length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs are presented.

RESULTS: The overall mortality (mean follow-up time of 22 months) in this study was 32/70 patients (45.71%), 30-days mortality was 8/70 (11.42%), and 12-months mortality was 22/70 (31.43%). Average LOS was 73.5 days with a median of 58, 766 € estimated in hospital costs per patient. Multivariate analysis for 12-months mortality was significant for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (p = 0.007, HR = 1.021, 95% CI = 1.006 - 1.037). ROC analysis for 12-months mortality for IVH volume >= 7 cm3 presented an are under the curve of 0.658.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified IVH volume > 7 cm3 as an independent prognostic risk factor for mortality in elderly patients after SICH. This may help clinicians in decision-making for this critical and growing subgroup of patients.

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