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Is coffee, tea, and red wine consumption beneficial for individuals with hypertension?

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of tea, coffee, and red wine intakes with health risks among individuals with hypertension.

METHODS: This prospective cohort study included participants with hypertension from the UK Biobank cohort. Study exposures included self-reported intakes of coffee, tea, and red wine. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcomes were cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular disease. The associations of beverage intake with outcomes were analyzed using Cox regression models. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated.

RESULTS: A total of 187 708 participants with hypertension were included. The median follow-up period was 13.8 years. In individuals with hypertension, drinking one to two cups/day of coffee or three to four cups/day of tea was significantly associated with the lowest risk of all-cause mortality compared with less than one cup/day [hazard ratio for coffee, 0.943 (95% confidence interval, 0.908-0.979); hazard ratio for tea, 0.882 (95% confidence interval, 0.841-0.924)]. Red wine intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk. Dose-response analysis revealed that high coffee intake (approximately greater than or equal to six cups/day) was significantly associated with increased risks of cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular disease, but high tea and red wine intakes were not. Furthermore, replacing plain water with tea, but not coffee, significantly reduced the risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Replacing other alcoholic beverages with red wine also significantly reduced the risks of all three outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that tea and red wine, but not coffee, can be part of a healthy diet for the hypertensive population.

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