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Pharmacodynamic rationale for the choice of antiseizure medications in the paediatric population.

In the landscape of paediatric epilepsy treatment, over 20 anti-seizure medications (ASMs) have gained approval from Drug Regulatory Agencies, each delineating clear indications. However, the complexity of managing drug-resistant epilepsy often necessitates the concurrent use of multiple medications. This therapeutic challenge highlights a notable gap: the absence of standardized guidelines, compelling clinicians to rely on empirical clinical experience when selecting combination therapies. This comprehensive review aims to explore current evidence elucidating the preferential utilization of specific ASMs or their combinations, with a primary emphasis on pharmacodynamic considerations. The fundamental objective underlying rational polytherapy is the strategic combination of medications, harnessing diverse mechanisms of action to optimize efficacy while mitigating shared side effects. Moreover, the intricate interplay between epilepsy and comorbidities partly may influence the treatment selection process. Despite advancements, unresolved queries persist, notably concerning the mechanisms underpinning drug resistance and the paradoxical exacerbation of seizures. By synthesizing existing evidence and addressing pertinent unresolved issues, this review aims to contribute to the evolving landscape of paediatric epilepsy treatment strategies, paving the way for more informed and efficacious therapeutic interventions.

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