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Prophylactic antiseizure medications for recurrent status epilepticus in nonsyndromic childhood epilepsy.

Brain & Development 2024 March 22
PURPOSE: The management of status epilepticus (SE) has mainly focused on the termination of ongoing SE episodes. However, long-term therapeutic strategies for the prevention of SE are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of prophylactic antiseizure medications (ASMs) for SEs in nonsyndromic childhood epilepsy.

METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Jikei University Hospital. Patients <18 years of age, diagnosed with epilepsy, and experiencing three or more SE episodes within 1 year between April 1, 2017, and October 1, 2021, were included. ASMs introduced for seizure types that developed into SE were evaluated. The effectiveness of ASMs was determined by using the "Rule of Three": An ASM was determined effective if patients were free of SE for a duration at least three times that of their longest SE interval in 12 months prior to intervention.

RESULTS: The investigation included a total of 32 ASMs administered to 13 patients. The longest interval between SE episodes before ASM administration was 28-257 d. The first SE interval after ASM administration was 12-797 d. Levetiracetam (LEV) and clobazam (CLB) showed effectiveness in 2/10 and 5/6 patients, respectively. Other ASMs were ineffective. The leading etiology of epilepsy was perinatal brain injury, identified in four patients, and CLB was effective in all of them.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that CLB and LEV may prolong the SE interval in some cases of nonsyndromic childhood epilepsy. CLB may be beneficial, particularly in patients with perinatal brain injury.

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