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Investigating the role of salivary Interleukin-40 levels in diagnosing periodontal diseases.

Oral Diseases 2024 March 22
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to analyze IL-40, IL-1β, and MMP-8 levels in periodontitis as well as gingivitis and periodontal health, and to explore potential correlations between these biomarkers and standard clinical parameters.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected saliva samples from 120 systemically healthy, non-smoking individuals aged between 18 and 63 years. These individuals were divided into three groups: healthy controls [S], gingivitis [G], and stage III grade B periodontitis [P]. IL-40, IL-1β, and MMP-8 levels in saliva samples were analyzed by ELISA.

RESULTS: We observed significantly elevated salivary IL-40 levels in the G group compared to the S group (p = 0.003). We found significantly higher salivary IL-1β levels in the P group compared to both the S and G groups (p = 0.000). Salivary MMP-8 levels were significantly higher in the P group than in the S group (p = 0.016).

CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that IL-40 and IL-1β may serve as effective salivary biomarkers for diagnosing gingivitis, while MMP-8 and IL-1β may be effective for distinguishing periodontitis. Based on our study's findings, it can be stated that IL-40 may serve as a new and effective biomarker for distinguishing individuals with gingivitis from healthy ones.

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