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Beyond 2D: Novel biomaterial approaches for modeling the placenta.

Placenta 2024 March 15
This review considers fully three-dimensional biomaterial environments of varying complexity as these pertain to research on the placenta. The developments in placental cell sources are first considered, along with the corresponding maternal cells with which the trophoblast interact. We consider biomaterial sources, including hybrid and composite biomaterials. Properties and characterization of biomaterials are discussed in the context of material design for specific placental applications. The development of increasingly complicated three-dimensional structures includes examples of advanced fabrication methods such as microfluidic device fabrication and 3D bioprinting, as utilized in a placenta context. The review finishes with a discussion of the potential for in vitro, three-dimensional placenta research to address health disparities and sexual dimorphism, especially in light of the exciting recent changes in the regulatory environment for in vitro devices.

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