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Management of Hyperkalemia in RAASi: Strategies to Maintain Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Type II Diabetes on Therapy.

Cardiorenal Medicine 2024 March 22
BACKGROUND: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), diabetes affects approximately 37.3 million individuals in the United States (US), with another estimated 96 million people having a prediabetic state. Furthermore, one or two out of three adult Americans exhibit metabolic syndrome or an insulin-resistant state, depending on their age group.

SUMMARY: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) represents a complication often associated with T2D or the insulin-resistant condition, typically identifiable through proteinuria. Proteinuria serves as both a marker and a contributing factor to kidney damage, and it significantly heightens the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, including atherosclerosis, heart attacks, and strokes. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) have demonstrated clinical efficacy in lowering blood pressure, reducing proteinuria, and slowing CKD progression. However, hyperkalemia is a common and serious adverse effect associated with using RAASi.

KEY MESSAGES: It is imperative to establish personalized management strategies to enable patients to continue RAASi therapy while effectively addressing hyperkalemia. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) must be careful not to inadvertently create a low renal perfusion state, which can reduce distal nephron luminal flow or luminal sodium concentration while using RAASi. Non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (nsMRA), such as finerenone, are demonstrated to delay CKD progression and reduce CV complications, all while mitigating the risk of hyperkalemia. Additionally, maintaining a routine monitoring regimen for serum potassium levels among at-risk patients, making dietary adjustments, and considering the adoption of newer potassium-binding agents hold promise for optimizing RAASi therapy and achieving more effective hyperkalemia management.

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