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Physiological and psychological determinants of long-term diet-induced type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remission: A narrative review.

Obesity Reviews 2024 March 22
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent metabolic disease, causing a heavy burden on healthcare systems worldwide, with related complications and anti-diabetes drug prescriptions. Recently, it was demonstrated that T2DM can be put into remission via significant weight loss using low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) and very low-energy diets (VLEDs) in individuals with overweight and obesity. Clinical trials demonstrated remission rates of 25-77%, and metabolic improvements such as improved blood lipid profile and blood pressure were observed. In contrast, clinical trials showed that remission rate declines with time, concurrent with weight gain, or diminished weight loss. This review aims to discuss existing literature regarding underlying determinants of long-term remission of T2DM including metabolic adaptations to weight loss (e.g., role of gastrointestinal hormones), type of dietary intervention (i.e., LCDs or VLEDs), maintaining beta (β)-cell function, early glycemic control, and psychosocial factors. This narrative review is significant because determining the factors that are associated with challenges in maintaining long-term remission may help in designing sustainable interventions for type 2 diabetes remission.

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