Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
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Interpapillary muscle distance independently predicts recurrent mitral regurgitation.

OBJECTIVE: Ischaemic secondary mitral regurgitation (ISMR) after surgery is due to the displacement of papillary muscles resulting from progressive enlargement of the left ventricle end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD). Our aim was to prove that if the interpapillary muscle distance (IPMD) is surgically stabilized, an increase in LVEDD will not lead to a recurrence of ischaemic mitral regurgitation (MR).

METHODS: Ninety-six patients with ISMR, who underwent surgical revascularisation and annuloplasty, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo papillary muscle approximation (PMA). At the 5-year follow-up, we assessed the correlation between PMA and echocardiographic improvements, the effect size of PMA on echocardiographic improvements, and a prediction model for recurrent MR using inferential tree analysis.

RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between PMA and enhancements in both the α and β angles (Spearman's rho > 0.7, p < 0.01). The α angle represents the angle between the annular plane and either the A2 annular-coaptation line or the P2 annular-coaptation line. The β angle indicates the angle between the annular plane and either the A2 annular-leaflet tip line or the P2 annular-leaflet tip line. PMA led to substantial improvements in LVEDD, tenting area, α and β angles, with a large effect size (Hedge's g ≥ 8, 95% CI ORs ≠ 1). The most reliable predictor of recurrent MR grade was the interpapillary distance, as only patients with an interpapillary distance greater than 40 mm developed ≥ 3 + grade MR. For patients with an IPMD of 40 mm or less, the best predictor of recurrent MR grade was LVEDD. Among the patients, only those with LVEDD greater than 62 mm showed moderate (2+) MR, while only those with LVEDD less than or equal to 62 mm had absent to mild (1+) MR.

CONCLUSION: Prediction of recurrent ischaemic MR is not independent of progressive LVEDD increase. PMA-based surgical procedure stabilises IPMD.

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