Journal Article
Systematic Review
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Effects of Remote Ischaemic Conditioning in Stable and Unstable Angina Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AIM: Type 4a myocardial infarction (T4aMI), defined as myocardial injury associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is associated with a poor prognosis and there is conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) in its prevention. This review aimed to determine the effect of RIC on stable and unstable angina patients.

METHOD: A systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Central database. Outcome measures were: changes in peak troponin, creatine kinase myocardial band (CKMB), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, incidence of T4aMI, and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). Data were meta-analysed and reported as standardised mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR). Risk of bias was assessed with the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB2) tool.

RESULTS: Fifteen studies with no significant risk of bias were included. Peak troponin level was reduced in the RIC group, particularly after excluding a study with low statin use, while CKMB and CRP levels resulted in a non-significant SMD between the groups. The incidence of T4aMI was significantly lower in the intervention group (OR 0.714; p=0.026); this finding was also seen in subgroups of elective PCI, pre-conditioning, and high statin use. Incidence of MACE also only reached statistically significant protective effects with OR <1 in similar subgroups. No substantial heterogeneity was found and the funnel plot did not show publication bias.

CONCLUSION: Remote ischaemic conditioning in elective PCI patients has been proven to be potentially beneficial in reducing peak troponin levels and risk of T4aMI and MACE.

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