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Do Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors Decrease the Risk of Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus?

BACKGROUND: The risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury is relatively higher in patients with diabetes mellitus compared to non-diabetics. Recent trials have revealed the renoprotective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. We aimed to investigate the possible preventive effect of SGLT2 inhibitors against contrast-associated acute kidney injury in the diabetic population who underwent coronary angiography with a diagnosis of stable angina or acute coronary syndrome.

METHODS: This was a cross-sectional and single-center study. We enrolled 345 patients with type II diabetes mellitus who were divided into 2 groups: using an SGLT2 inhibitor (group 1; n = 133) in addition to other antidiabetic medication and not using an SGLT2 inhibitor (group 2; n = 212). Both groups were compared in terms of contrast-associated acute kidney injury incidence. We also compared groups for the duration of hospitalization.

RESULTS: Baseline characteristics (age, sex, risk factors and medications) and laboratory findings were similar between the 2 groups. The means of administered contrast volume were also similar (160.42 (± 70.31) mL vs. 158.72 (± 81.24) mL, P = 0.83) between groups 1 and 2, respectively. We found that contrast-associated acute kidney injury incidence was significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 1 (n = 56 (26.4%) vs. n = 12 (9.0%), P < 0.001). The duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in group 2 (3.25 (± 2.03) days) than in group 1 (2.54 (± 1.39) days) (P = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: We found that contrast-associated acute kidney injury was significantly lower, and the duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter in diabetic patients using SGLT2 inhibitors compared to non-users.

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