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Blood Features Associated with Viral Infection Severity: An Experience from COVID-19-Pandemic Patients Hospitalized in the Center of Iran, Yazd.

Pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest as systemic infections that affect multiple organs and show laboratory manifestations. We aimed to analyze laboratory findings to understand possible mechanisms of organ dysfunction and risk stratification of hospitalized patients in these epidemics. Methods . This retrospective study was conducted among patients admitted to COVID-19 referral treatment center, Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran, from April 21 to November 21, 2021. It was the fifth peak of COVID-19 in Iran, and Delta (VOC-21APR-02; B.1-617.2) was the dominant and most concerning strain. All cases were positive for COVID-19 by RT-PCR test. Lab information of included patients and association of sex, age, and outcome were analyzed, on admission. Results . A total of 466 COVID-19 patients were included in the study, the majority of whom were women (68.9%). The average age of hospitalized patients in male and female patients was 57.68 and 41.32 years, respectively ( p < 0.01). During hospitalization, abnormality in hematological and biochemical parameters was significant and was associated with the outcome of death in patients. There was incidence of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. The changes in neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) and hematocrit/albumin (Het/Alb) ratio and potassium and calcium levels were significant. Conclusion . Based on these results, new biochemical and hematological parameters can be used to predict the spread of infection and the underlying molecular mechanism. Viral infection may spread through blood cells and the immune system.

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