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Inhibition of leukotriene-B4 signalling-mediated host response to tuberculosis is a potential mode of adjunctive host-directed therapy.

Immunology 2024 March 20
Treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is faced with several challenges including the long treatment duration, drug toxicity and tissue pathology. Host-directed therapy provides promising avenues to find compounds for adjunctively assisting antimycobacterials in the TB treatment regimen, by promoting pathogen eradication or limiting tissue destruction. Eicosanoids are a class of lipid molecules that are potent mediators of inflammation and have been implicated in aspects of the host response against TB. Here, we have explored the blood transcriptome of pulmonary TB patients to understand the activity of leukotriene B4, a pro-inflammatory eicosanoid. Our study shows a significant upregulation in the leukotriene B4 signalling pathway in active TB patients, which is reversed with TB treatment. We have further utilized our in-house network analysis algorithm, ResponseNet, to identify potential downstream signal effectors of leukotriene B4 in TB patients including STAT1/2 and NADPH oxidase at a systemic as well as local level, followed by experimental validation of the same. Finally, we show the potential of inhibiting leukotriene B4 signalling as a mode of adjunctive host-directed therapy against TB. This study provides a new mode of TB treatment along with mechanistic insights which can be further explored in pre-clinical trials.

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