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New insights into Gasdermin D pore formation.

Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is a pore-forming protein that perforates the plasma membrane (PM) during pyroptosis, a pro-inflammatory form of cell death, to induce the unconventional secretion of inflammatory cytokines and, ultimately, cell lysis. GSDMD is activated by protease-mediated cleavage of its active N-terminal domain from the autoinhibitory C-terminal domain. Inflammatory caspase-1, -4/5 are the main activators of GSDMD via either the canonical or non-canonical pathways of inflammasome activation, but under certain stimuli, caspase-8 and other proteases can also activate GSDMD. Activated GSDMD can oligomerize and assemble into various nanostructures of different sizes and shapes that perforate cellular membranes, suggesting plasticity in pore formation. Although the exact mechanism of pore formation has not yet been deciphered, cysteine residues are emerging as crucial modulators of the oligomerization process. GSDMD pores and thus the outcome of pyroptosis can be modulated by various regulatory mechanisms. These include availability of activated GSDMD at the PM, control of the number of GSDMD pores by PM repair mechanisms, modulation of the lipid environment and post-translational modifications. Here, we review the latest findings on the mechanisms that induce GSDMD to form membrane pores and how they can be tightly regulated for cell content release and cell fate modulation.

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