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Mycotic Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm a Rare Complication of Ventricular Septal Defect With Infective Endocarditis: A Case Report.

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary artery aneurysms encompass a wide range of presentations and forms. Mycotic aneurysms represent a particular subset of focal dilatation of the vessel wall with high morbidity and mortality rates. Herein, we report the case of a 32 year old patient, with a prior history of ventricular septal defect presenting with a mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with infective endocarditis and septic emboli.

CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 32 year old male with known history of congenital ventricular septal defect presented to the emergency department with signs of sepsis and dyspnea. Blood cultures were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. An echocardiogram found evidence of endocarditis with multiples intra cavitary vegetations. A CT angiogram demonstrated major right ventricular dilatation, multiple nodules and peripheral opacities, scattered throughout the lungs, indicative of septic emboli. Segmental saccular dilatation of the left lateral basal pulmonary artery consistent with a mycotic aneurysm formation was found. The patient was started on intravenous antibiotics and given the overall satisfactory evolution a conservative approach was pursued. The patient was discharged with antibiotics and scheduled for surgical repair of the ventricular septal defect.

CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, mycotic aneurysms associated to congenital heart malformation like ventricular septal wall defect remains a rare condition with few reported cases in the literature. Being aware of this entity is important for every practicing radiologist to allow for early diagnosis and treatment.

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