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Concurrent acute sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and disseminated encephalitis associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae in an adult patient with anti-MOG and anti-sulfatide antibodies: a case report.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome refer to post-infectious or post-vaccination inflammatory demyelinating disorders of central and peripheral nervous system, respectively. We report the case of a 60-year-old male patient presenting with irritability, gait difficulty, asymmetric quadriparesis (mostly in his left extremities), distal sensory loss for pain and temperature in left limbs, and reduced tendon reflexes in his upper limbs and absent in his lower limbs, following an upper respiratory tract infection, 3 weeks earlier. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal T2 signal and peripherally enhancing lesions in hemispheres, brainstem, and cerebellum. Nerve conduction studies were compatible with acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy. Serology revealed positive IgM and IgG antibodies for Chlamydia pneumoniae , and he also tested positive for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and sulfatide antibodies. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone led to clinical and radiological recovery within weeks. Even though several cases of combined central and peripheral demyelination have been reported before, it is the first case report with seropositive anti-sulfatide and anti-MOG acute sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and disseminated encephalitis associated with C. pneumoniae.

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