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Unraveling the impact of the p.R107L mutation on the structure and function of human αB-Crystallin: Implications for cataract formation.

Biochimie 2024 March 16
To date, several pathogenic mutations have been identified in the primary structure of human α-Crystallin, frequently involving the substitution of arginine with a different amino acid. These mutations can lead to the incidence of cataracts and myopathy. Recently, an important cataract-associated mutation has been reported in the functional α-Crystallin domain (ACD) of human αB-Crystallin protein, where arginine 107 (R107) is replaced by a leucine. In this study, we investigated the structure, chaperone function, stability, oligomerization, and amyloidogenic properties of the p.R107L human αB-Crystallin using a number of different techniques. Our results suggest that the p.R107L mutation can cause significant changes in the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of αB-Crystallin. This cataractogenic mutation led to the formation of protein oligomers with larger sizes than the wild-type protein and reduced the chemical and thermal stability of the mutant chaperone. Both fluorescence and microscopic assessments indicated that this mutation significantly altered the amyloidogenic properties of human αB-Crystallin. Furthermore, the mutant protein indicated an attenuated in vitro chaperone activity. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation confirmed the experimental results and indicated that p.R107L mutation could alter the proper conformation of human αB-Crystallin dimers. In summary, our results indicated that the p.R107L mutation could promote the formation of larger oligomers, diminish the stability and chaperone activity of human αB-Crystallin, and these changes, in turn, can play a crucial role in the development of cataract disorder.

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