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The multifaceted role of proteases and modern analytical methods for investigation of their catalytic activity.

Biochimie 2024 March 16
We discuss the diverse functions of proteases in the context of their biotechnological and medical significance, as well as analytical approaches used to determine the functional activity of these enzymes. An insight into modern approaches to studying the kinetics and specificity of proteases, based on spectral (absorption, fluorescence), mass spectrometric, immunological, calorimetric, and electrochemical methods of analysis is given. We also examine in detail electrochemical systems for determining the activity and specificity of proteases. Particular attention is given to exploring innovative electrochemical systems based on the detection of the electrochemical oxidation signal of amino acid residues, thereby eliminating the need for extra redox labels in the process of peptide synthesis. In the review, we highlight the main prospects for the further development of electrochemical systems for the study of biotechnologically and medically significant proteases, which will enable the miniaturization of the analytical process for determining the enzymatic activity of these enzymes.

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