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Onco-Hypertension in Patients with Kidney Disease.

BACKGROUND: Cancer, hypertension, and kidney disease are closely interrelated. Knowledge of the potential hypertensive and nephrotoxic effects of antineoplastic medications is critical to minimizing interruptions in cancer treatment.

SUMMARY: Antineoplastic medications can cause hypertension, proteinuria, and kidney injury, often mediated by common mechanisms. Notably, inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway have the strongest association with both hypertension and proteinuria, typically acute in onset and often reversible after drug discontinuation. The abrupt rise in blood pressure can cause clinically significant hypertensive syndromes and contribute to overall morbidity. Significant proteinuria can herald kidney failure. Close monitoring of blood pressure and renal function during antineoplastic therapy and appropriate hypertension treatment are important. This article reviews available literature and proposes a step-by-step approach to manage cancer patients with concurrent hypertension and kidney disease.

KEY MESSAGES: For antineoplastic medications with known hypertensive effect, blood pressure should be checked at baseline and serially during cancer treatment. Hypertensive crisis with end-organ damage, significant proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, or unexplained acute kidney injury necessitates drug cessation until further evaluation and resolution. In patients with chronic kidney disease and cancer therapy-related hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker is the preferred antihypertensive choice. Finally, multidisciplinary collaboration in these patients will yield the best results.

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